Urban Outcasts

A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 0745657478

Category: Social Science

Page: 360

View: 5099

Breaking with the exoticizing cast of public discourse and conventional research, Urban Outcasts takes the reader inside the black ghetto of Chicago and the deindustrializing banlieue of Paris to discover that urban marginality is not everywhere the same. Drawing on a wealth of original field, survey and historical data, Loïc Wacquant shows that the involution of America's urban core after the 1960s is due not to the emergence of an 'underclass', but to the joint withdrawal of market and state fostered by public policies of racial separation and urban abandonment. In European cities, by contrast, the spread of districts of 'exclusion' does not herald the formation of ghettos. It stems from the decomposition of working-class territories under the press of mass unemployment, the casualization of work and the ethnic mixing of populations hitherto segregated, spawning urban formations akin to 'anti-ghettos'. Comparing the US 'Black Belt' with the French 'Red Belt' demonstrates that state structures and policies play a decisive role in the articulation of class, race and place on both sides of the Atlantic. It also reveals the crystallization of a new regime of marginality fuelled by the fragmentation of wage labour, the retrenchment of the social state and the concentration of dispossessed categories in stigmatized areas bereft of a collective idiom of identity and claims-making. These defamed districts are not just the residual 'sinkholes' of a bygone economic era, but also the incubators of the precarious proletariat emerging under neoliberal capitalism. Urban Outcasts sheds new light on the explosive mix of mounting misery, stupendous affluence and festering street violence resurging in the big cities of the First World. By specifying the different causal paths and experiential forms assumed by relegation in the American and the French metropolis, this book offers indispensable tools for rethinking urban marginality and for reinvigorating the public debate over social inequality and citizenship at century's dawn.

Urban Outcasts

A Comparative Sociology of Advanced Marginality

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 074563124X

Category: Social Science

Page: 342

View: 2655

This volume draws on a wealth of original fieldwork, surveys and historical data to show that the state of America's urban core is due to the public policies of segregation and abandonment.

Prisons of Poverty

Author: Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: U of Minnesota Press

ISBN: 0816639000

Category: Social Science

Page: 217

View: 856

In this title, the author examines how penal policies emanating from the United States have spread thoughout the world. The author argues that the policies have their roots in a network of Reagan-era conservative think tanks, which used them as weapons in their crusade to dismantle the welfare state and, in effect, criminalise poverty.

Commodifying Bodies

Author: Nancy Scheper-Hughes,Loic Wacquant

Publisher: SAGE

ISBN: 9780761940340

Category: Social Science

Page: 199

View: 5158

With rapid developments in reproductive medicine, transplant ethics and bioethics, a new `ethic of parts' has emerged in which the body is increasingly seen as a commodity which can be bartered, sold or stolen. This book combines perspectives from anthropology and sociology to offer compelling new readings of the body.

Criminalisation and Advanced Marginality

Critically Exploring the Work of Loïc Wacquant

Author: Peter Squires,John Lea

Publisher: Policy Press

ISBN: 1447300017

Category: Social Science

Page: 272

View: 511

Written by criminologists and policy analysts, Criminalisation and advanced marginality offers a constructive but critical application of Wacquant's ideas.

Clearing the Way

Deconcentrating the Poor in Urban America

Author: Edward Glenn Goetz

Publisher: The Urban Insitute

ISBN: 9780877667124

Category: Political Science

Page: 313

View: 7307

Over the past three decades, the concentration of poverty in America?s inner cities has exacerbated a wide range of social problems. School delinquency, school dropout, teenage pregnancy, out-of-wedlock childbirth, violent crime, and drug abuse are magnified in neighborhoods where the majority of residents are poor. In response, policymakers have embarked on a large and coordinated effort to ?deconcentrate? the urban poor by dispersing the residents of subsidized housing. Despite the clean logic of these policies, however, deconcentration is not a clean process. In Clearing the Way, Edward Goetz goes beyond the narrow analysis that has informed the debate so far, using the experience of Minneapolis-Saint Paul to explore the fierce political debate and complicated issues that arise when public housing residents are dispersed, sometimes against their will. Along the way, he explores the cases for and against deconcentrating the poor, the programs used to pursue this goal, and the research used to evaluate their success. Clearing the Way offers important lessons for policymakers, activists, and anyone interested in poverty in America.

Punishing the Poor

The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Duke University Press

ISBN: 0822392259

Category: Social Science

Page: 408

View: 1477

The punitive turn of penal policy in the United States after the acme of the Civil Rights movement responds not to rising criminal insecurity but to the social insecurity spawned by the fragmentation of wage labor and the shakeup of the ethnoracial hierarchy. It partakes of a broader reconstruction of the state wedding restrictive “workfare” and expansive “prisonfare” under a philosophy of moral behaviorism. This paternalist program of penalization of poverty aims to curb the urban disorders wrought by economic deregulation and to impose precarious employment on the postindustrial proletariat. It also erects a garish theater of civic morality on whose stage political elites can orchestrate the public vituperation of deviant figures—the teenage “welfare mother,” the ghetto “street thug,” and the roaming “sex predator”—and close the legitimacy deficit they suffer when they discard the established government mission of social and economic protection. By bringing developments in welfare and criminal justice into a single analytic framework attentive to both the instrumental and communicative moments of public policy, Punishing the Poor shows that the prison is not a mere technical implement for law enforcement but a core political institution. And it reveals that the capitalist revolution from above called neoliberalism entails not the advent of “small government” but the building of an overgrown and intrusive penal state deeply injurious to the ideals of democratic citizenship. Visit the author’s website.

Against Recognition

Author: Lois McNay

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745629326

Category: Social Science

Page: 232

View: 1915

The idea of the struggle for recognition features prominently in the work of various thinkers from Charles Taylor and Jurgen Habermas to Axel Honneth and Nancy Fraser who are concerned with the centrality of issues of identity in modern society. In differing ways, these thinkers use the idea of recognition to develop accounts of the individual which are opposed to the asocial individualism of liberal thought and to the abstraction of much work on the subject. The idea of recognition expresses the notion that individuality is an intersubjective phenomenon formed through pragmatic interactions with others. By highlighting the intersubjective features of individuality, the idea of recognition has both descriptive and normative content and it has important implications for a feminist account of gender identity. In this brilliant and original book, Lois McNay argues that the insights of the recognition theorists are undercut by their reliance on an inadequate account of power. The idea of recognition relies on an account of social relations as extrapolations of a primal dyad of interaction that overlooks the complex ways in which individuality is connected to abstract social structures in contemporary society. Using Bourdieu′s relational sociology, McNay develops an alternative account of individual agency that connects identity to structure. By focussing on issues of gender identity and agency, she opens up new pathways to move beyond the oppositions between material and cultural feminisms.

Criminological Imagination

Author: Jock Young

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 9780745641065

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 3298

For the last three decades Jock Young's work has had a profound impact on criminology. Yet, in this provocative new book, Young rejects much of what criminology has become, criticizing the rigid determinism and rampant positivism that dominate the discipline today. His erudite and entertaining examination of what's gone wrong with criminology draws on a range of research - from urban ethnography to sexology and criminal victimization studies - to illustrate its failings. At the same time, Young makes a passionate case for a return to criminology's creative and critical potential, partly informed by the new developments in cultural criminology. A late-modern counterpart to C.Wright Mills's classic The Sociological Imagination, this inspirational piece of writing from one of the most brilliant voices in contemporary criminology will command widespread attention. It will be essential reading for anyone who cares about the future of criminology, and the social sciences more generally.

Pierre Bourdieu and Democratic Politics

The Mystery of Ministry

Author: Loïc Wacquant

Publisher: Polity

ISBN: 0745634885

Category: Social Science

Page: 224

View: 2993

Pierre Bourdieu was a brilliant sociologist and social thinker; he was also an intensely political man whose work is of profound significance for rethinking democracy. This original volume presents and develops Bourdieu's distinctive contribution to the theory and practice of democratic politics. It explicates and illustrates his core concepts of political field and field of power, his historical model of the bureaucratic state, and his influential analyses of the practices and institutions involved in the paradoxical phenomenon of political representation - starting with the enigma of delegation, or what he called the "mystery of ministry." The fruitfulness of Bourdieu's approach is demonstrated in a series of integrated studies of voting, public opinion polls, party dynamics, class rule, and state-building, as well as by careful analyses of Bourdieu's own civic engagements and his theoretical treatment of the politics of reason and recognition in contemporary society. Charting the connections between Bourdieu's political views, the main nodes of his sociology of democratic representation, and the implications of this sociology for progressive civic thought and action, this book will be of interest to students and scholars across the gamut of disciplines as well as to citizens concerned with renewing struggles for social justice.

An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology

Author: Pierre Bourdieu,Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226067414

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 7220

Over the last three decades, the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu has produced one of the most imaginative and subtle bodies of social theory and research of the post war era. Yet, despite the influence of his work, no single introduction to his wide-ranging oeuvre is available. This book, intended for an English-speaking audience, offers a systematic and accessible overview, providing interpretive keys to the internal logic of Bourdieu's work by explicating thematic and methodological principles underlying his work. The structure of Bourdieu's theory of knowledge, practice, and society is first dissected by Loic Wacquant; he then collaborates with Bourdieu in a dialogue in which they discuss central concepts of Bourdieu's work, confront the main objections and criticisms his work has met, and outline Bourdieu's views of the relation of sociology to philosophy, economics, history, and politics. The final section captures Bourdieu in action in the seminar room as he addresses the topic of how to practice the craft of reflexive sociology. Throughout, they stress Bourdieu's emphasis on reflexivity—his inclusion of a theory of intellectual practice as an integral component of a theory of society—and on method—particularly his manner of posing problems that permits a transfer of knowledge from one area of inquiry into another. Amplified by notes and an extensive bibliography, this synthetic view is essential reading for both students and advanced scholars.

The Management of Hate

Nation, Affect, and the Governance of Right-Wing Extremism in Germany

Author: Nitzan Shoshan

Publisher: Princeton University Press

ISBN: 1400883652

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 6917

Since German reunification in 1990, there has been widespread concern about marginalized young people who, faced with bleak prospects for their future, have embraced increasingly violent forms of racist nationalism that glorify the country's Nazi past. The Management of Hate, Nitzan Shoshan’s riveting account of the year and a half he spent with these young right-wing extremists in East Berlin, reveals how they contest contemporary notions of national identity and defy the clichés that others use to represent them. Shoshan situates them within what he calls the governance of affect, a broad body of discourses and practices aimed at orchestrating their attitudes toward cultural difference—from legal codes and penal norms to rehabilitative techniques and pedagogical strategies. Governance has conventionally been viewed as rational administration, while emotions have ordinarily been conceived of as individual states. Shoshan, however, convincingly questions both assumptions. Instead, he offers a fresh view of governance as pregnant with affect and of hate as publicly mediated and politically administered. Shoshan argues that the state’s policies push these youths into a right-extremist corner instead of integrating them in ways that could curb their nationalist racism. His point is certain to resonate across European and non-European contexts where, amid robust xenophobic nationalisms, hate becomes precisely the object of public dispute. Powerful and compelling, The Management of Hate provides a rare and disturbing look inside Germany’s right-wing extremist world, and shines critical light on a German nationhood haunted by its own historical contradictions.

The Gold Coast and the Slum

A Sociological Study of Chicago's Near North Side

Author: Harvey Warren Zorbaugh

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 9780226989457

Category: History

Page: 287

View: 1330

"This is a book about Chicago. It is also, and for that very reason, a book about every other American city which has lived long enough and grown large enough to experience the transformation of neighborhoods and the contact of cultures and the tension between different types of individual and community behavior. . . . Here is a type of sociological investigation which is equally marked by human interest and scientific method."—Christian Century

Body & Soul

Notebooks of an Apprentice Boxer

Author: Loïc J. D. Wacquant

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195305620

Category: Social Science

Page: 274

View: 2792

In the late 1980s Wacquant, a white, French-born, French and American sociology graduate student, entered the Woodlawn gym on 63rd Street in Chicago and began training as a boxer. This text invites us to follow Wacquant's immersion into the everyday world of Chicago's boxers.

Scenescapes

How Qualities of Place Shape Social Life

Author: Daniel Aaron Silver,Terry Nichols Clark

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 022635699X

Category: Social Science

Page: 449

View: 4672

Familiar urban sights: the pub regular on his stool, beer mug in hand, or the young couple shining out on the dance floor, or the improvising musicians in a jazz clubthese are experiences created by a given scene, where we feel connected to others in places like the community center, neighborhood parish, or even the efficiently functioning train station. Scenes enable experience, but they also cultivate skills, create ambiances, and nourish commitments. A scene that encourages personal self-expression turns out to mean stronger wage growth for tech firms associated with that scene, but also higher rents, and more jobs. This book deals in vivid detail with scenes as local styles of life (including an analysis of 40,000 zip codes). The idea of scene is a powerful tool for understanding how and why places grow and change. There are many terrific case studies here but also comparative data sets which show the role of culture in local economic growth, patterns of residence, and politics. The authors ask us to consider how specific place characteristic combine into an aesthetic view of place, what is the style of life, the spirit, the meaning, the mood expressed in scenes. They give us tools for thinking about place and for deciding where to live, where to work, where to relax, where to organize communities . . . ."

Segregation

A Global History of Divided Cities

Author: Carl H. Nightingale

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226580776

Category: History

Page: 536

View: 7557

When we think of segregation, what often comes to mind is apartheid South Africa, or the American South in the age of Jim Crow—two societies fundamentally premised on the concept of the separation of the races. But as Carl H. Nightingale shows us in this magisterial history, segregation is everywhere, deforming cities and societies worldwide. Starting with segregation’s ancient roots, and what the archaeological evidence reveals about humanity’s long-standing use of urban divisions to reinforce political and economic inequality, Nightingale then moves to the world of European colonialism. It was there, he shows, segregation based on color—and eventually on race—took hold; the British East India Company, for example, split Calcutta into “White Town” and “Black Town.” As we follow Nightingale’s story around the globe, we see that division replicated from Hong Kong to Nairobi, Baltimore to San Francisco, and more. The turn of the twentieth century saw the most aggressive segregation movements yet, as white communities almost everywhere set to rearranging whole cities along racial lines. Nightingale focuses closely on two striking examples: Johannesburg, with its state-sponsored separation, and Chicago, in which the goal of segregation was advanced by the more subtle methods of real estate markets and housing policy. For the first time ever, the majority of humans live in cities, and nearly all those cities bear the scars of segregation. This unprecedented, ambitious history lays bare our troubled past, and sets us on the path to imagining the better, more equal cities of the future.

Young People and Social Control

Problems and Prospects from the Margins

Author: Ross Deuchar,Kalwant Bhopal

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 3319529080

Category: Social Science

Page: 183

View: 6477

This book explores young people’s experiences of social control and the state, especially those living at the margins of society within the UK. In particular, the book focuses on disadvantaged young people’s experiences in education, in the labour market, with police and within the criminal justice system. It draws upon insights gathered by the authors in Scotland and England via in-depth interviews with, and observation of, young people in multiple settings and the barriers they come across in terms of justice, equity and inclusion. Deuchar and Bhopal present a range of creative and engaging case studies that illustrate where barriers have been broken down between young people and the agents of social control and elucidate upon how a sense of justice and inclusion has emerged. With its wide-ranging, multi-perspective approach, this study will be essential reading for scholars and students of sociology, criminology and youth studies, as well as holding appeal for policy-makers and practitioners.

Gentrification

Author: Loretta Lees,Tom Slater,Elvin Wyly

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1135930252

Category: Architecture

Page: 344

View: 9414

This first textbook on the topic of gentrification is written for upper-level undergraduates in geography, sociology, and planning. The gentrification of urban areas has accelerated across the globe to become a central engine of urban development, and it is a topic that has attracted a great deal of interest in both academia and the popular press. Gentrification presents major theoretical ideas and concepts with case studies, and summaries of the ideas in the book as well as offering ideas for future research.

The Truly Disadvantaged

The Inner City, the Underclass, and Public Policy, Second Edition

Author: William Julius Wilson

Publisher: University of Chicago Press

ISBN: 0226924653

Category: Social Science

Page: 320

View: 8598

Renowned American sociologist William Julius Wilson takes a look at the social transformation of inner city ghettos, offering a sharp evaluation of the convergence of race and poverty. Rejecting both conservative and liberal interpretations of life in the inner city, Wilson offers essential information and a number of solutions to policymakers. The Truly Disadvantaged is a wide-ranging examination, looking at the relationship between race, employment, and education from the 1950s onwards, with surprising and provocative findings. This second edition also includes a new afterword from Wilson himself that brings the book up to date and offers fresh insight into its findings. “The Truly Disadvantaged should spur critical thinking in many quarters about the causes and possible remedies for inner city poverty. As policymakers grapple with the problems of an enlarged underclass they—as well as community leaders and all concerned Americans of all races—would be advised to examine Mr. Wilson's incisive analysis.”—Robert Greenstein, New York Times Book Review

The City

Los Angeles and Urban Theory at the End of the Twentieth Century

Author: Allen J. Scott

Publisher: Univ of California Press

ISBN: 9780520213135

Category: Political Science

Page: 483

View: 475

Los Angeles has grown from a scattered collection of towns and villages to one of the largest megacities in the world. The editors of THE CITY have assembled a variety of essays examining the built environment and human dynamics of this extraordinary modern city, emphasizing the dramatic changes that have occurred since 1960. 58 illustrations.