Value Chains, Social Inclusion and Economic Development

Contrasting Theories and Realities

Author: A.H.J. (Bert) Helmsing,Sietze Vellema

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1136724710

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 320

View: 1409

Lead firms, development organisations, donors and governments view value chains and voluntary standards as vital instruments for achieving millennium development goals through trade and market-related interventions. The precise foundations for these development strategies, which suggest positive development outcomes from integration of poor actors into value chains, are as yet underdeveloped. The interdisciplinary work in this volume shows how trade is managed and asks theory-driven questions about how value chains relate to locally-rooted development processes. Policy makers and development practitioners are increasingly using value chain analysis to frame pro-poor development interventions. This book offers multiple conceptualizations of development outcomes of inclusion of small producers, firms and workers in value chains. Processes of inclusion at different scales are unpacked in order to identify the terms of participation of small producers, firms and workers. As value chains are embedded, the book further argues that inclusion can be conceptualized as the degree of alignment between value chain logics and the institutions and capacities in the local business system. The combination of inclusive governance and endogenous development informs a grounded debate on roles of development-oriented partnerships. Chapters in this volume draw on multiple strands of economics, sociology, political science, geography and management studies; and for empirical grounding engage in comparative analysis of cases from Latin America, SubSaharan Africa and East and South East Asia. These are combined with processes taking place at a global level, such as the proliferation of standards and the growth of roundtables and multi-stakeholder partnerships. The contributions explore contrasts – between contexts, between industries or commodities/products, and between conceptual frameworks; and the context dependency of development impact necessitates cross-case investigations. This collection will be of interest to scholars in development studies, economics, business studies, as well as to development policy makers.

Local Governance, Economic Development and Institutions

Author: G. Gomez,P. Knorringa,Georgina M. Gómez

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1137557591

Category: Social Science

Page: 332

View: 7693

'Development' is what most people see as progress in the places where they live and in the ways they live. It has to do with public services, the ways to complain when these are not delivered properly, and the spaces to change power structures. It is related to the economy, the opportunities to access a secure job, a sustainable livelihood and increased welfare while caring for the planet and others. It is also linked to the institutions that allow people to live life well, using resources ethically and doing business responsibly in relation to other communities and future generations. This edited collection examines the interconnections between local governance, economic development and institutions, by focusing on what initiatives work and under what conditions they do so. Based on a variety of theories and empirical data, it presents evidence from current experiences around the world, revealed by researchers across different continents and several generations.

Institutional Innovation and Change in Value Chain Development

Negotiating tradition, power and fragility in Afghanistan

Author: Holly A. Ritchie

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131740405X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 302

View: 1918

George Bernard Shaw once said that reasonable people adapt themselves to the world but unreasonable people adapt the world to themselves. In a sense, this book explores how these so-called ‘unreasonable people’ may interact to re-fashion the world around them in fragile economic development. Drawing on empirical research in the volatile and traditional context of Afghanistan, the study investigates the challenge of poor women’s participation in business and diverse outcomes for local development. Institutional Innovation and Change in Value Chain Development takes a unique look at nuanced institutional phenomena through the lens of social institutions, with a subtle appreciation of the interaction of structure and agency. Drawing on in-depth qualitative research in Afghanistan, the case studies specifically investigate the transformation of the women’s norm of purdah, and the subsequent development of new market institutions in three women’s enterprises. Shedding new light on the opaque process of institutional change, the research shows that external actors (such as NGOs) can both initiate and guide institutional development in fragile environments. Yet there may be limitations to their endeavours, with strong resistance from local power holders. Meanwhile, dominant entrepreneurs are shown to play a major role in fostering institutional development pathways. This influences the scope of inclusion and exclusion in enterprise and value chains, and broader streams of socio-economic development.

Handbook of the International Political Economy of Governance

Author: Anthony Payne,Nicola Phillips

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 0857933485

Category: Political Science

Page: 512

View: 7189

Since the 1990s many of the assumptions that anchored the study of governance in international political economy (IPE) have been shaken loose. Reflecting on the intriguing and important processes of change that have occurred, and are occurring, Profess

The Universal Social Safety-Net and the Attack on World Poverty

Pressing Need, Manageable Cost, Practical Possibilities, Favourable Spillovers

Author: Anthony Clunies-Ross,Mozammel Huq

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134659148

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 202

View: 7879

The book is concerned with strategy and tactics for directing that small slice of world income into filling the gap. This must be done country by country, on the initiative of each country’s government: with the maximum involvement of its own civil society, and with the rich world also making a contribution. To add momentum, the international community needs to adopt targets far more specific than the fifty percent extreme ‘poverty reduction’ of the first Millennium Development Goal.

Innovation for inclusive value-chain development

Successes and challenges

Author: Devaux, André,Torero, Maximo,Donovan, Jason,Horton, Douglas E.

Publisher: Intl Food Policy Res Inst

ISBN: 0896292134

Category: Political Science

Page: 560

View: 7731

Governments, nongovernmental organizations, donors, and the private sector have increasingly embraced value-chain development (VCD) for stimulating economic growth and combating rural poverty. Innovation for Inclusive Value-Chain Development: Successes and Challenges helps to fill the current gap in systematic knowledge about how well VCD has performed, related trade-offs or undesired effects, and which combinations of VCD elements are most likely to reduce poverty and deliver on overall development goals. This book uses case studies to examine a range of VCD experiences. Approaching the subject from various angles, it looks at new linkages to markets and the role of farmer organizations and contract farming in raising productivity and access to markets, the minimum assets requirement to participate in VCD, the role of multi-stakeholder platforms in VCD, and how to measure and identify successful VCD interventions. The book also explores the challenges livestock-dependent people face; how urbanization and advancing technologies affect linkages; ways to increase gender inclusion and economic growth; and the different roles various types of platforms play in VCD.

Reconnecting Markets

Innovative Global Practices in Connecting Small-Scale Producers with Dynamic Food Markets

Author: Estelle Biénabe,Julio Berdegué,John Belt

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317070380

Category: Science

Page: 208

View: 1545

The rapid changes taking place in the structure and governance of national and regional agri-food markets in developing countries seriously affect the ability of agriculture, especially small-scale agriculture, to contribute to economic growth and sustainable development. Reconnecting Markets is the second volume of case examples from the Regoverning Markets programme (2005-2008). It focuses on the keys to inclusion of small-scale farmers and rural SMEs into dynamic national and regional markets. The cases document specific arrangements that appear to have played a positive role in supporting greater inclusion, such as public policies and business initiatives, collective action by farmers and support from development agencies.

Quality Standards, Value Chains, and International Development

Economic and Political Theory

Author: Johan Swinnen,Thijs Vandemoortele,Koen Deconinck,Anneleen Vandeplas

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1107025915

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 250

View: 8488

This book offers the first theoretical analysis of the determination of quality standards and their effects along the value chain.

The Legacy of Ireland's Economic Expansion

Geographies of the Celtic Tiger

Author: Peadar Kirby,Padraig Carmody

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 131796635X

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 182

View: 6140

Ireland underwent a dramatic economic and social transformation from the 1990s onwards, earning it the title the "Celtic Tiger". Rapid economic growth was accompanied by substantial in-migration. However in the later 2000s Ireland is also experiencing a severe economic recession. This book examines the nature and geographies of the Celtic Tiger, focusing on the evolution of industries such as information and communication technology and pharamaceuticals. It also examines the changing nature of social ties in cities, trends amongst knowledge workers and the experiences of return migrants. It concludes with reflections on the nature of the Celtic Tiger phenomenon and how this will shape Ireland’s geography and society into the future. This book was published as a special issue of Irish Geography.

National Innovation Systems, Social Inclusion and Development

The Latin American Experience

Author: Gabriela Dutrénit,Judith Sutz

Publisher: Edward Elgar Publishing

ISBN: 1782548688

Category: Social Science

Page: 448

View: 9541

This unique book brings together new perspectives on inclusive development and the kinds of science, technology and innovation that can foster this form of development.

The Economics of Self-Employment and Entrepreneurship

Author: Simon C. Parker

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139451864

Category: Business & Economics

Page: N.A

View: 2016

As self-employment and entrepreneurship become increasingly important in our modern economies, Simon C. Parker provides a timely, definitive and comprehensive overview of the field. In this book he brings together and assesses the large and disparate literature on these subjects and provides an up-to-date overview of new research findings. Key issues addressed include: the impact of ability, risk, personal characteristics and the macroeconomy on entrepreneurship; issues involved in raising finance for entrepreneurial ventures, with an emphasis on the market failures that can arise as a consequence of asymmetric information; the job creation performance of the self-employed; the growth, innovation and exit behaviour of new ventures and small firms; and the appropriate role for governments interested in promoting self-employment and entrepreneurship. This book will serve as an essential reference guide to researchers, students and teachers of entrepreneurship in economics, business and management and other related disciplines.

Producer Organisations and Market Chains

Facilitating Trajectories of Change in Developing Countries

Author: Giel Ton,Jos Bijman,Joost Oorthuizen

Publisher: Wageningen Academic Pub

ISBN: 9086860486

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 317

View: 6018

The role of producer organizations in market chains has received increasing attention in recent years, both from governments and donors. In order to lower transaction costs, markets demand that smallholder farmers operate in an organized manner. However, though the policy openings for support seem promising, smallholder market access through farmer-The role of producer organizations in market chains has received increasing attention in recent years, both from governments and donors. In order to lower transaction costs, markets demand that smallholder farmers operate in an organized manner. However, though the policy openings for support seem promising, smallholder market access through farmer-led economic organisations is not easy.This book presents various approaches to support producer organisations in terms of providing economic services to their members, with a focus on developing countries. Markets are increasingly fragmented in value chains that link farmers with specific processors, retailers and consumer segments. Several contributions in this book analyse these dynamics in specific value chains, such as the fair trade and organic agriculture and their potential to provide market outlets for smallholder farmers.The sixteen contributions in the book are organized in three sections:- organisational support for producer organisations;- value chain development with producer organisations;- changes in the institutional environment for producer organisations.This book is the result of a Dutch partnership between policy makers, researchers and practitioners designed to confront ideas with realities. Organized in a platform called Agri-ProFocus, members aim to provide more and better support to producer organisations in the South. Through so-called expert meetings, staff from donor organisations and knowledge centres, government officials, and business representatives, share their experiences and lessons learned.The experiences presented in this book are not recipes for instant success, but instead, highlight that support processes are often more fragile and slower moving than policy makers realise. This book is essential reading for scholars, practitioners and researchers interested in supporting and facilitating trajectories of change led by producer organisations in developing countries.

Liquid Biofuels: Emergence, Development and Prospects

Author: Antonio Domingos Padula,Manoela Silveira dos Santos,Omar Inácio Benedetti Santos,Denis Borenstein

Publisher: Springer

ISBN: 1447164822

Category: Science

Page: 272

View: 4325

Bioenergy is coming to be seen as a priority on the international agenda, with the use of liquid biofuels a key strategy in the attempt to meet both the demand for environmental sustainability and the energy needs of countries. The growth in the production and use of biofuels around the world has led to increased interest and discussion about this subject. Given the dynamics of this phenomenon, the organizers of this book, based on more than 10 years experience of joint research on this subject, seek to address key issues relating to the production and marketing of liquid biofuels using the Brazilian experience with ethanol and biodiesel as an illustrative case, as well as the experiences of the leading producers and consumers of biofuels. The topics to be covered in this book include the role of public policies in fostering the emergence of the biofuels industry, the main socio-economic, environmental, technological aspects and the prospects for the sector. The conceptual and methodological bases that provide analytical support to the book are based on recent research published in indexed journals. The structure and content of the book seek to address some central issues regarding: How the biofuel industries have emerged and developed in different countries? What factors have been crucial to the success or failure of different production initiatives? What are the main socio-economic-environmental impacts of the production and consumption of liquid biofuels? How are national and international markets for liquid biofuels being structured? To what extent and/or in what conditions can the experiences and lessons learned at the national level be transferred and adapted in other countries? Finally, based on the scenarios, the prospects for liquid biofuels will be discussed.

Green Growth and Travelism

Concept, Policy and Practice for Sustainable Tourism

Author: Terry DeLacy,Min Jiang,Geoffrey Lipman,Shaun Vorster

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113629466X

Category: Social Science

Page: 304

View: 5581

The green growth paradigm emerged from evolving global strategies that coherently promote a more socially inclusive, low-carbon, resource-efficient, stable economy, with decreasing poverty. Opportunities and challenges associated with the paradigm shift are expected to transform the travel and tourism (travelism) sector in all respects and on a global scale. This involves the transformation of the entire travelism value chain, as well as the communities in tourism destinations. However, there is a lack of systematic reports on wide-ranging and complex implications of the green growth paradigm for the travelism sector. This book focuses on the twin pillars – green growth and travelism – as key building blocks in exploring an essential multi-decade lifestyle change for planetary and human well-being, through the lenses of concept, policy and practice. It provides a conceptual discussion of the implications of the new development trend for key players in the travelism system, offers case studies from both developed and developing countries that highlight key issues in the transformation towards the green economy, and explores the policy settings and frameworks on both the global and national levels that underpin travelism green growth. This book offers tourism industry players, academics, students, policy makers and practitioners a comprehensive discussion of the latest progress in green growth and travelism.

Globalisation, Economic Inclusion and African Workers

Making the Right Connections

Author: Kate Meagher,Maxim Bolt,Laura Mann

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 9780367075910

Category:

Page: 124

View: 3023

This book addresses the question of whether greater inclusion in the global economy offers a solution to rising unemployment and poverty in contemporary Africa. The authors trace the connection between global demographic change and new mechanisms of economic inclusion via global value chains, digital networks, labour migration, and corporate engagement with the bottom of the pyramid, challenging the claim that African workers have become functionally irrelevant to the global economy. They expose the shift of global demand for African workers from formal to increasingly informalised labour arrangements, mediated by social enterprises, labour brokers, graduate entrepreneurs and grassroots associations. Focusing on global employment connections initiated from above and from below, the authors examine whether global labour linkages increase or reduce problems of vulnerable and unstable working conditions within African countries, and considers the economic and political conditions needed for African workers to capture the gains of inclusion in the global economy. This book was previously published as a special issue of the Journal of Development Studies.

Behind the Brands

Food justice and the 'Big 10' food and beverage companies

Author: Beth Hoffman

Publisher: Oxfam

ISBN: 1780772513

Category: Agriculture

Page: 52

View: 6581

Wto Trade Policy Review

Peru 2013

Author: World Trade Organization Wto

Publisher: World Trade Organization

ISBN: 9789287039279

Category: Business & Economics

Page: 112

View: 3498

Monitoring the trade policies and practices of members is a fundamentally important activity of the World Trade Organization. All WTO members are reviewed at regular intervals, according to their share of world trade. Each Trade Policy Review consists of three parts: a report by the government under review, a report written independently by the WTO Secretariat, and the concluding remarks by the chair of the Trade Policy Review Body. A highlights section provides an overview of key trade facts.

Middle East and North Africa Economic Developments and Prospects, October 2012

Looking Ahead After a Year in Transition

Author: WORLD BANK

Publisher: World Bank Publications

ISBN: 0821398075

Category: Africa, North

Page: 30

View: 8023

The post-revolutionary economies of MENA - Egypt, Tunisia, Libya and Yemen - have been recovering after a period of growth decelerations in 2011. In Egypt and Tunisia, the growth dips of 2011 were less dramatic than the declines observed during previous transitions. The recovery has been relatively quick but the transition process is far from complete and uncertainty about the political and reform process remains a binding constraint to private investment. Consequently, post-transition growth is below potential and is lower than growth prior to the Arab Spring, with negative consequences for employment and poverty. Events in the post-revolution economies have affected other countries in MENA. Macroeconomic fundamentals weakened in most developing MENA countries in 2011-12 as growth slowed and governments responded to social pressures with expansionary fiscal policies. The regional growth outlook for 2013 reflects weaker expected global economic activity, especially in the EU, and moderating oil prices. Regional economic growth is expected to decelerate to 3.5% in 2013 from 5.5% in 2012. Prolonged political and policy uncertainty and social unrest are serious downside risks to the outlook.