Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World

A Sourcebook

Author: Ross Shepard Kraemer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199725830

Category: History

Page: 520

View: 3862

This is a substantially expanded and completely revised edition of a book originally published in 1988 as Maenads, Martyrs, Matrons, Monastics. The book is a collection of translations of primary texts relevant to women's religion in Western antiquity, from the fourth century BCE to the fifth century CE. The selections are taken from the plethora of ancient religions, including Judaism and Christianity, and are translated from the six major languages of the Greco-Roman world: Greek, Latin, Aramaic, Hebrew, Syriac, and Coptic. The texts are grouped thematically in six sections: Observances, Rituals, and Festivals; Researching Real Women: Documents to, from and by Women; Religious Office; New Religious Affiliation and Conversion; Holy, Pious, and Exemplary Women; and The Feminine Divine. Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World provides a unique and invaluable resource for scholars of classical antiquity, early Christianity and Judaism, and women's religion more generally.

Maenads, Martyrs, Matrons, Monastics

Sourcebook on Women's Religions in the Greco-Roman World

Author: Ross Shepard Kraemer

Publisher: Augsburg Fortress Publishing

ISBN: N.A

Category: Religion

Page: 429

View: 385

Her Share of the Blessings

Women's Religions among Pagans, Jews, and Christians in the Greco-Roman World

Author: Ross Shepard Kraemer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780198023135

Category: History

Page: 288

View: 5193

In this pathbreaking volume, Ross Shepard Kraemer provides the first comprehensive look at women's religions in Greco-Roman antiquity. She vividly recreates the religious lives of early Christian, Jewish, and pagan women, with many fascinating examples: Greek women's devotion to goddesses, rites of Roman matrons, Jewish women in rabbinic and diaspora communities, Christian women's struggles to exercise authority and autonomy, and women's roles as leaders in the full spectrum of Greco-Roman religions. In every case, Kraemer reveals the connections between the social constraints under which women lived, and their religious beliefs and practices. The relationship among female autonomy, sexuality, and religion emerges as a persistent theme. Analyzing the monastic Jewish Therapeutae and various Christian communities, Kraemer demonstrates the paradoxical liberation which women achieved by rejection of sexuality, the body, and the female. In the epilogue, Kraemer pursues the disturbing implications such findings have for contemporary women. Based on an astonishing variety of primary sources, Her Share of the Blessings is an insightful work that goes beyond the limitations of previous scholarship to provide a more accurate portrait of women in the Greco-Roman world.

Unreliable Witnesses

Religion, Gender, and History in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean

Author: Ross Shepard Kraemer

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 9780199781201

Category: Religion

Page: 344

View: 5475

In her latest book, Ross Shepard Kraemer shows how her mind has changed or remained the same since the publication of her ground-breaking study, Her Share of the Blessings: Women's Religions Among Pagans, Jews and Christians in the Greco-Roman World (OUP 1992). Unreliable Witnesses scrutinizes more closely how ancient constructions of gender undergird accounts of women's religious practices in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean. Kraemer analyzes how gender provides the historically obfuscating substructure of diverse texts: Livy's account of the origins of the Roman Bacchanalia; Philo of Alexandria's envisioning of idealized, masculinized women philosophers; rabbinic debates about women studying Torah; Justin Martyr's depiction of an elite Roman matron who adopts chaste Christian philosophical discipline; the similar representation of Paul's fictive disciple, Thecla, in the anonymous Acts of (Paul and) Thecla; Severus of Minorca's depiction of Jewish women as the last hold-outs against Christian pressures to convert, and others. While attentive to arguments that women are largely fictive proxies in elite male contestations over masculinity, authority, and power, Kraemer retains her focus on redescribing and explaining women's religious practices. She argues that - gender-specific or not - religious practices in the ancient Mediterranean routinely encoded and affirmed ideas about gender. As in many cultures, women's devotion to the divine was both acceptable and encouraged, only so long as it conformed to pervasive constructions of femininity as passive, embodied, emotive, insufficiently controlled and subordinated to masculinity. Extending her findings beyond the ancient Mediterranean, Kraemer proposes that, more generally, religion is among the many human social practices that are both gendered and gendering, constructing and inscribing gender on human beings and on human actions and ideas. Her study thus poses significant questions about the relationships between religions and gender in the modern world.

Jewish Identity in the Greco-Roman World

Author: Jörg Frey,Daniel R. Schwartz,Stephanie Gripentrog

Publisher: BRILL

ISBN: 9004158383

Category: Religion

Page: 435

View: 2774

The book addresses critical issues of the formation and development of Jewish identity in the late Second Temple period. How could Jewish identity be defined? What about the status of women and the image of 'others'? And what about its ongoing influence in early Christianity?

Women's Ritual Competence in the Greco-Roman Mediterranean

Author: Matthew Dillon,Esther Eidinow,Lisa Maurizio

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134780591

Category: History

Page: 262

View: 6471

Contributions in this volume demonstrate how, across the ancient Mediterranean and over hundreds of years, women’s rituals intersected with the political, economic, cultural, or religious spheres of their communities in a way that has only recently started to gain sustained academic attention. The volume aims to tease out a number of different approaches and contexts, and to expand existing studies of women in the ancient world as well as scholarship on religious and social history. The contributors face a famously difficult task: ancient authors rarely recorded aspects of women’s lives, including their songs, prophecies, and prayers. Many of the objects women made and used in ritual were perishable and have not survived; certain kinds of ritual objects (lowly undecorated pots, for example) tend not even to be recorded in archaeological reports. However, the broad range of contributions in this volume demonstrates the multiplicity of materials that can be used as evidence – including inscriptions, textiles, ceramics, figurative art, and written sources – and the range of methodologies that can be used, from analysis of texts, images, and material evidence to cognitive and comparative approaches.

Jewish Women in Greco-Roman Palestine

An Inquiry Into Image and Status

Author: Tal Ilan

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161491689

Category: History

Page: 270

View: 9030

Tal Ilan explores the real, as against the ideal social, political and religious status of women in Palestinian Judaism of the Hellenistic and Roman periods. The main conclusions of this investigations are that extreme religious groups in Judaism of the period influenced other groups, classes and factions to tighten their control of women and represent the ideal relationships beween men and women as requiring greater chastity, in order to prove their piety. However, the lives of real women, over and against their representation in the literature of the time, and their relationships to men as opposed to the ideals represented by legal codes, were much more varied and nuanced. This book integrates both Jewish and Early Christian sources together with a feminist critique. This book is a tour de force - a major piece of research and a 'must read' for all concerned with the recovery of women's history.Judith Romney Wegner in Journal of Biblical Literature 2 (1997), pp. 354This fine collection of carefully analysed data will have lasting value...Martin Goodman in Journal of Roman Studies vol. 88 (1998), p. 189The scope of the work is impressive.Joshua Schwartz in Journal of Jewish Studies 1 (1997), pp. 156

Magic in the Roman World

Pagans, Jews, and Christians

Author: Naomi Janowitz

Publisher: Psychology Press

ISBN: 9780415202060

Category: History

Page: 145

View: 6677

Using in-depth examples of 'magical' practice such as exorcisms, love rites, alchemy and the transformation of humans into divine beings, this lively volume demonstrates that the word 'magic' was used widely in late antique texts as part of polemics against enemies and sometimes merely as a term for other people's rituals. Naomi Janowitz shows that 'magical' activities were integral to late antique religious practice, and that they must be understood from the perspective of those who employed them.

Early Christian Families in Context

An Interdisciplinary Dialogue

Author: David L. Balch,Carolyn Osiek

Publisher: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing

ISBN: 9780802839862

Category: History

Page: 412

View: 6834

Much has been written about the Roman family unit, but relatively little about the early Christian period, comparing Roman, Jewish and Christian concepts of the family.

The Oxford History of the Biblical World

Author: Michael David Coogan

Publisher: Oxford University Press, USA

ISBN: 0195139372

Category: Religion

Page: 487

View: 3520

Examines the history, art, architecture, languages, literatures, society, and religion of Biblical Israel and early Judaism and Christianity

From Good Goddess to Vestal Virgins

Sex and Category in Roman Religion

Author: Ariadne Staples

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 113478788X

Category: History

Page: 217

View: 4990

The role of women in Roman culture and society was a paradoxical one. On the one hand they enjoyed social, material and financial independence and on the other hand they were denied basic constitutional rights. Roman history is not short of powerful female figures, such as Agrippina and Livia, yet their power stemmed from their associations with great men and was not officially recognised. Ariadne Staples' book examines how women in Rome were perceived both by themselves and by men through women's participation in Roman religion, as Roman religious ritual provided the single public arena where women played a significant formal role. From Good Goddess to Vestal Virgins argues that the ritual roles played out by women were vital in defining them sexually and that these sexually defined categories spilled over into other aspects of Roman culture, including political activity. Ariadne Staples provides an arresting and original analysis of the role of women in Roman society, which challenges traditionally held views and provokes further questions.

Women in the World of the Earliest Christians

Illuminating Ancient Ways of Life

Author: Lynn Cohick

Publisher: Baker Academic

ISBN: 9781441207999

Category: Religion

Page: 350

View: 7620

Lynn Cohick provides an accurate and fulsome picture of the earliest Christian women by examining a wide variety of first-century Jewish and Greco-Roman documents that illuminate their lives. She organizes the book around three major spheres of life: family, religious community, and society in general. Cohick shows that although women during this period were active at all levels within their religious communities, their influence was not always identified by leadership titles nor did their gender always determine their level of participation. The book corrects our understanding of early Christian women by offering an authentic and descriptive historical picture of their lives. Includes black-and-white illustrations from the ancient world.

Gender in History

Global Perspectives

Author: Merry E. Wiesner-Hanks

Publisher: John Wiley & Sons

ISBN: 9781444351729

Category: History

Page: 248

View: 4980

Updated with new material to reflect the latest developments in the field, Gender in History: Global Perspectives, 2nd Edition, provides a concise overview of the construction of gender in world cultures from the Paleolithic era to modern times. Includes examples drawn from the most recent scholarship relating to a diverse range of cultures, from Ancient Mesopotamia to post-Soviet Russia, and from the Igbo of Nigeria, to the Iroquois of north eastern North America. Reflects new developments in the field with added coverage of primates, slavery, colonialism, masculinity, and transgender issues Features significant discussion of the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods, an important trend in the study of world history Lays out key theoretical and methodological issues in an introduction that is written in accessible language Supplementary material for instructors and students available at www.wiley.com/go/wiesnerhanks

Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries

Author: Deborah F. Sawyer

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1134841787

Category: History

Page: 200

View: 7168

Women and Religion in the First Christian Centuries focuses on religion during the period of Roman imperial rule and its significance in women's lives. It discusses the rich variety of religious expression, from pagan cults and classical mythology to ancient Judaism and early Christianity, and the wide array of religious functions fulfilled by women. The author analyses key examples from each context, creating a vivid image of this crucial period which laid the foundations of western civilization. The study challenges the concepts of religion and of women in the light of post-modern critique. As such, it is an important contribution to contemporary gender theory. In its broad and interdisciplinary approach, this book will be of interest to students of early religion as well as those involved in cultural theory.

Silencing the Queen

The Literary Histories of Shelamzion and Other Jewish Women

Author: Ṭal Ilan

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161488795

Category: Religion

Page: 315

View: 6753

Tal Ilan explores the way historical documents from antiquity are reworked and edited in a long process that ends in silencing the women originally mentioned in them. Many methods are used to produce this end result: elimination of women or their words, denigration of the women and their role or unification of several significant women into one. These methods and others are illuminated in this book, as it uses the example of the Jewish queen Shelamzion Alexandra (76-67 BCE) for its starting point. Queen Shelamzion was the only legitimate Jewish queen in history. Yet all the documents in which she is mentioned (Josephus, Qumran scrolls, rabbinic literature etc.) have been reworked so as to minimize her significance and distort the picture we may receive of her. Tal Ilan follows the ways this was done and in doing so she encounters similar patterns in which other Jewish women in antiquity were silenced, censored and edited out.

The Greco-Roman World of the New Testament Era

Exploring the Background of Early Christianity

Author: James S. Jeffers

Publisher: InterVarsity Press

ISBN: 0830878025

Category: Religion

Page: 352

View: 7422

What was life like for first-century Christians? Imagine a modest-sized Roman home of a well-to-do Christian household wedged into a thickly settled quarter of Corinth. In the lingering light of a summer evening, men, women and children, merchants, working poor and slaves, a mix of races and backgrounds have assembled in the dimly lit main room are are spilling into the central courtyard. This odd assortment of gathered believers—some thirty in number—are attentive as the newly arrived and travel-weary emissary from Paul reads from the papyrus scroll he has brought from their apostolic mentor. But if you were to be transported to this scene you would perhaps be overwhelmed by a flood of unexpected difference. The voice of the reader recedes as through open windows the din and clamor of the city assault your ears. Hooves clunk and cart wheels grind and echo from the street while drivers shout, vendors call and neighbors gather and converse. And later, as you accompany a family through darkened and dangerous streets to their third-story tenement apartment, you might try to mask your shock at the cramped and unsafe conditions. In The Greco-Roman World of the New Testament Era James Jeffers provides an informative and scenic tour of daily life during the time of Jesus and the apostles. He affords "you-are-there" glimpses of everything from legal codes to dinner foods, from social hierarchy to apartment living, from education to family dynamics. His eye-opening book will advance your understanding of the New Testament and early Christianity and enrich your reading and application of the Bible.

Daughters of the Church

Women and ministry from New Testament times to the present

Author: Ruth A. Tucker,Walter L. Liefeld

Publisher: Zondervan

ISBN: 0310877466

Category: Religion

Page: 556

View: 1995

Rich in historical events and colorfully written, this fascinating account of women in the church spans nearly two thousand years of church history. It tells of events and aspirations, determination and disappointment, patience and achievement that mark the history of daughters of the church from the time of Jesus to the present. The authors have endeavored to present an objective story. The very fact that readers may find themselves surprised now and again by the prominent role of women in certain events and movements proves an inequality that historical narrative has often been guilty of. This is a book about women. It is a setting straight off the record -- a restoring of balance to history that has repeatedly played down the significance of the contributions of women to the theology, the witness, the movements, and the growth of the church. An exegetical study of relevant Scripture passages offers stimulating thought for discussion and for serious reevaluation of historical givens. This volume is enriched by pictures, appendixes, bibliography, and indexes. Like many of the women whose stories it tells, this book has a subdued strength that should not be underestimated.

Golden Bells and Pomegranates

Studies in Midrash Leviticus Rabbah

Author: Burton L. Visotzky

Publisher: Mohr Siebeck

ISBN: 9783161479915

Category: Religion

Page: 206

View: 9687

Burton Visotzky studies the 5th Century rabbinic anthology Midrash Leviticus Rabbah. He outlines the content of this text, its novel elements of style, structure and redation, and places it at a turning point in rabbinic literature in the Greco-Roman milieu.