Shaping Biology

The National Science Foundation and American Biological Research, 1945-1975

Author: Toby A. Appel

Publisher: JHU Press

ISBN: 0801873479

Category: Science

Page: 408

View: 9802

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Historians of the postwar transformation of science have focused largely on the physical sciences, especially the relation of science to the military funding agencies. In Shaping Biology, Toby A. Appel brings attention to the National Science Foundation and federal patronage of the biological sciences. Scientists by training, NSF biologists hoped in the 1950s that the new agency would become the federal government's chief patron for basic research in biology, the only agency to fund the entire range of biology—from molecules to natural history museums—for its own sake. Appel traces how this vision emerged and developed over the next two and a half decades, from the activities of NSF's Division of Biological and Medical Sciences, founded in 1952, through the cold war expansion of the 1950s and 1960s and the constraints of the Vietnam War era, to its reorganization out of existence in 1975. This history of NSF highlights fundamental tensions in science policy that remain relevant today: the pull between basic and applied science; funding individuals versus funding departments or institutions; elitism versus distributive policies of funding; issues of red tape and accountability. In this NSF-funded study, Appel explores how the agency developed, how it worked, and what difference it made in shaping modern biology in the United States. Based on formerly untapped archival sources as well as on interviews of participants, and building upon prior historical literature, Shaping Biology covers new ground and raises significant issues for further research on postwar biology and on federal funding of science in general. -- Margaret RossiterCornell University, author of Women Scientists in America: Before Affirmative Action, 1940-1972

Shaping the Future

Biology and Human Values

Author: Steve Olson

Publisher: National Academies

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 116

View: 4350

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Looks at developments in genetics, cell growth, neurobiology, and evolution, and ethical issues raised by biological research

A Guinea Pig's History Of Biology

The plants and animals who taught us the facts of life

Author: Jim Endersby

Publisher: Random House

ISBN: 1448106850

Category: Science

Page: 512

View: 8746

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The triumphs of recent biology - understanding hereditary disease, the modern theory of evolution - are all thanks to the fruit fly, the guinea pig, the zebra fish and a handful of other organisms, which have helped us unravel one of life's greatest mysteries - inheritance. Jim Endersby traces his story from Darwin hand-pollinating passion flowers in his back garden in an effort to find out whether his decision to marry his cousin had harmed their children, to today's high-tech laboratories, full of shoals of shimmering zebra fish, whose bodies are transparent until they are mature, allowing scientists to watch every step as a single fertilised cell multiples to become millions of specialised cells that make up a new fish. Each story has - piece by piece - revealed how DNA determines the characteristics of the adult organism. Not every organism was as cooperative as the fruit fly or zebra fish, some provided scientists with misleading answers or encouraged them to ask the wrong questions.

Conceptual Ecology and Invasion Biology: Reciprocal Approaches to Nature

Author: Marc W. Cadotte,Sean M. McMahon,Tadashi Fukami

Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media

ISBN: 9781402049255

Category: Science

Page: 487

View: 4181

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In this edited volume, global experts in ecology and evolutionary biology explore how theories in ecology elucidate the processes of invasion, while also examining how specific invasions inform ecological theory. This reciprocal benefit is highlighted in a number of scales of organization: population, community and biogeographic. The text describes example invaders in all major groups of organisms and from a number of regions around the globe.

The Brain Takes Shape

An Early History

Author: Robert L. Martensen

Publisher: Oxford University Press

ISBN: 0195151720

Category: Medical

Page: 247

View: 9451

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This fine book tells an important story of how long-standing notions about the body as dominated by spirit-like humors were transformed into scientific descriptions of its solid tissues. Vesalius, Harvey, Descartes, Willis, and Locke all played roles in this transformation, as the cerebral hemispheres and cranial nerves began to take precedence over the role of spirit, passion, and the heart in human thought and behavior. Non of this occurred in a social vacuum, and the book describes the historical context clearly. It also shows how debates over investigative methods and models of body order that first raged over 300 years ago continue to influence biomedicine and the broader culture today. No other book on western mind-body relationships has attempted this.

The Shaping of Life

The Generation of Biological Pattern

Author: Lionel G. Harrison

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 1139494457

Category: Science

Page: N.A

View: 8339

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Biological development, how organisms acquire their form, is one of the great frontiers in science. While a vast knowledge of the molecules involved in development has been gained in recent decades, big questions remain on the molecular organization and physics that shape cells, tissues and organisms. Physical scientists and biologists traditionally have very different backgrounds and perspectives, yet some of the fundamental questions in developmental biology will only be answered by combining expertise from a range of disciplines. This book is a personal account by Professor Lionel Harrison of an interdisciplinary approach to studying biological pattern formation. It articulates the power of studying dynamics in development: that to understand how an organism is made we must not only know the structure of its molecules; we must also understand how they interact and how fast they do so.

Using The Biological Literature

A Practical Guide, Revised And Expanded

Author: Diane Schmidt,Elisabeth B. Davis

Publisher: CRC Press

ISBN: 9780824741716

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 488

View: 8921

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"Provides an in-depth review of current print and electronic tools for research in numerous disciplines of biology, including dictionaries and encyclopedias, method guides, handbooks, on-line directories, and periodicals. Directs readers to an associated Web page that maintains the URLs and annotations of all major Inernet resources discussed in this edition."

Light in Shaping Life

Biophotons in Biology and Medicine

Author: Roeland van Wijk

Publisher: Boekenservice.nl

ISBN: 9081884328

Category:

Page: 419

View: 8579

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The production of biological light (ultra-weak photon emission or biophotons) within many types of cells and tissues is characteristic of an alive organism. You will begin a journey of discovery about biophotons in relationship to biological matter and about how such biophotons can be detected utilizing specialized very photon-sensitive technologies. In this book, Roeland Van Wijk provides a unified synthesis that facilitates easy entry into an exciting sub-field of biology. Light in Shaping Life encompasses the history of biophoton research, insight into how biophotons are generated, and into their involvement with life. Also included, is an overview of the potential benefits of such research to a better understanding of health and medicine.

Creative biology teaching

Author: Delma E. Harding,Roger P. Volker,David L. Fagle

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Science

Page: 342

View: 9394

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This text was written to help teachers solve the everyday problems they meet in the classroom and in the field, and to make them aware of the exciting challenges that exist in teaching modern biology.

Shaping Primate Evolution

Form, Function, and Behavior

Author: Fred Anapol,Rebecca Z. German,Nina G. Jablonski

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

ISBN: 9781139451567

Category: Social Science

Page: N.A

View: 2637

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Shaping Primate Evolution is an edited collection of papers about how biological form is described in primate biology, and the consequences of form for function and behavior. The contributors are highly regarded internationally recognized scholars in the field of quantitative primate evolutionary morphology. Each chapter elaborates upon the analysis of the form-function-behavior triad in a unique and compelling way. This book is distinctive not only in the diversity of the topics discussed, but also in the range of levels of biological organization that are addressed from cellular morphometrics to the evolution of primate ecology. The book is dedicated to Charles E. Oxnard, whose influential pioneering work on innovative metric and analytic techniques has gone hand-in-hand with meticulous comparative functional analyses of primate anatomy. Through the marriage of theory with analytical applications, this volume will be an important reference work for all those interested in primate functional morphology.