The Chinese Typewriter

A History

Author: Thomas S. Mullaney

Publisher: MIT Press

ISBN: 0262536102

Category: Technology & Engineering

Page: 504

View: 3700

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How Chinese characters triumphed over the QWERTY keyboard and laid the foundation for China's information technology successes today. Chinese writing is character based, the one major world script that is neither alphabetic nor syllabic. Through the years, the Chinese written language encountered presumed alphabetic universalism in the form of Morse Code, Braille, stenography, Linotype, punch cards, word processing, and other systems developed with the Latin alphabet in mind. This book is about those encounters—in particular thousands of Chinese characters versus the typewriter and its QWERTY keyboard. Thomas Mullaney describes a fascinating series of experiments, prototypes, failures, and successes in the century-long quest for a workable Chinese typewriter. The earliest Chinese typewriters, Mullaney tells us, were figments of popular imagination, sensational accounts of twelve-foot keyboards with 5,000 keys. One of the first Chinese typewriters actually constructed was invented by a Christian missionary, who organized characters by common usage (but promoted the less-common characters for “Jesus" to the common usage level). Later came typewriters manufactured for use in Chinese offices, and typewriting schools that turned out trained “typewriter girls” and “typewriter boys.” Still later was the “Double Pigeon” typewriter produced by the Shanghai Calculator and Typewriter Factory, the typewriter of choice under Mao. Clerks and secretaries in this era experimented with alternative ways of organizing characters on their tray beds, inventing an input method that was the first instance of “predictive text.” Today, after more than a century of resistance against the alphabetic, not only have Chinese characters prevailed, they form the linguistic substrate of the vibrant world of Chinese information technology. The Chinese Typewriter, not just an “object history” but grappling with broad questions of technological change and global communication, shows how this happened. A Study of the Weatherhead East Asian Institute Columbia University

International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms

Image, Object, Text

Author: Meghan Forbes

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 0429958129

Category: History

Page: 256

View: 7905

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With large-scale scholarly projects dedicated to digitizing print-based magazines and a concurrent turn towards digital mapping and data visualization, periodicals that were once accessible only in the archive now have the capacity to reach a wider audience, and make visible previously overlooked networks and connections enacted within and across the magazines. International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms: Image, Object, Text offers a unique contribution to the field of periodical studies, while also broadening the scope of purview to consider related content with regards to other relevant printed matter and cultural products, as well as digital archiving strategies. Including interdisciplinary contributions from academics around the world, the volume presents a wide range of approaches to periodicals and printed matter from Africa, Asia, Europe, the Middle East, Latin America, and the Caribbean. Questions of material print culture and the digital realm are considered both via theoretical and more empirical approaches. As a whole, the book considers the pluralism of perspectives that the study of periodicals and printed matter contribute to our historical understanding of various political and social issues, and also devotes attention to the ways in which digital archiving projects can be instrumentalized as a strategy for filling in gaps in the historical record. International Perspectives on Publishing Platforms should be of great interest to researchers, academics and postgraduates engaged in the study of periodicals, publishing, book history, world literature, digital humanities, media, visual and material culture.

The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Culture

Author: Sue-Ann Harding,OVIDI CARBONELL CORTES

Publisher: Routledge

ISBN: 1317368495

Category: Language Arts & Disciplines

Page: 644

View: 4638

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The Routledge Handbook of Translation and Culture collects into a single volume thirty-two state-of-the-art chapters written by international specialists, overviewing the ways in which translation studies has both informed, and been informed by, interdisciplinary approaches to culture. The book's five sections provide a wealth of resources, covering both core issues and topics in the first part. The second part considers the relationship between translation and cultural narratives, drawing on both historical and religious case studies. The third part covers translation and social contexts, including the issues of cultural resistance, indigenous cultures and cultural representation. The fourth part addresses translation and cultural creativity, citing both popular fiction and graphic novels as examples. The final part covers translation and culture in professional settings, including cultures of science, legal settings and intercultural businesses. This handbook offers a wealth of information for advanced undergraduates, postgraduates and researchers working in translation and interpreting studies.

Cinematograph of History

Post/colonial Modernity in 1930s Shanghai and New Taiwanese Cinema Since 1982

Author: Guo-Juin Hong

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category:

Page: 456

View: 7496

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Women Artists in the Collection of the Musée National D'art Moderne, Centre de Création Industrielle

Author: Musée national d'art moderne/Centre de création industrielle (France)

Publisher: N.A

ISBN: N.A

Category: Art

Page: 381

View: 7197

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Paradigms in Computing

Making, Machines, and Models for Design Agency in Architecture

Author: David Jason Gerber,Mariana Ibanez

Publisher: eVolo Press

ISBN: 1938740114

Category: Architecture

Page: 404

View: 894

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Paradigms in Computing: Making, Machines, and Models for Design Agency in Architecture brings together critical, theoretical, and practical research and design that illustrates the plurality of computing approaches within the broad spectrum of design and mediated practices. It is an interrogation of our primary field of architecture through the lens of computing, and yet one that realizes a productive expanding of our métier’s definition and boundaries. It is a compilation that purposefully promotes architecture’s disciplinary reach and incorporations beyond the design and construction of buildings and cities. The book offers a glimpse into the wide range of positions and experiences that are shaping practice and discourse today. The work included in Paradigms in Computing is evidence that models for enquiry are many and proliferating. As digitalization and computation continue to infuse our processes with new tools and new design environments, some of the trends collected in this book will continue to be central to the production and speculation of architecture, and others will, in retrospect, be recognized as the seeds of new, or perhaps multiple, paradigms. Included are essays and projects, from; Alisa Andrasek, Rachel Armstrong, Philip Beesley, Tom Bessai, Shajay Bhooshan, Brad Cantrel, Matias Del Campo, Pablo Eiroa, Marc Fornes, David Jason Gerber, Maria Paz Gutierrez, Alvin Huang, Jason Kelly Johnson, Simon Kim, Neil Leach, Greg Lynn, Elena and Anna Maria Manferdini, Alex McDowell, Phillippe Morel, Nick Puckett, Casey Reas, Alex Robinson, Jenny Sabin, Jose Sanchez, Patrik Schumacher, Kyle Steinfeld, Satoru Sugihara, Orkan Telhan, Kathy Velikov and Geoffrey Thun, Tom Verebes, Leire Asensio Villoria and David Mah, Jenny Wu, Eric Howeler and Meejin Yoon, and Zaha Hadid Architects.